The European Audiovisual Observatory, part of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, has just released a new report "User empowerment against disinformation online" which examines the various tools and their uses.
This publication describes the many ways in which public authorities and private enterprises empower users against disinformation online. The first chapter sets the scene by discussing relevant concepts, such as mis-, dis- and malinformation, empowerment, and media literacy. It further discusses the way in which disinformation affects users, why it has become such an issue, and how to measure it. Chapter 2 presents the international and EU legal and policy framework, with special emphasis on the different measures introduced by the European Union to fight disinformation. Chapter 3 covers responses at national level, highlights some examples of legislative and non-legislative responses to online disinformation in Europe, and shows how states are placing user empowerment at the centre of their approach to the issue. Chapter 4 focuses on self- and co-regulation, providing an overview of the Strengthened EU Code of Practice on Disinformation, delving into the role of national regulatory authorities, and looking at the practical implementation of measures by Big Tech platforms. Chapter 5 presents relevant judgments of both the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights in which they had to rule on cases that are connected, directly or indirectly, to the issue of disinformation. Wrapping up the publication, Chapter 6 presents stakeholders’ reactions to the 2022 Code and recent developments at EU level.